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LAS VEGAS — Two researchers examining the processes for issuing web certificates have uncovered vulnerabilities that would allow an attacker to masquerade as any website and trick a computer user into providing him with sensitive communications. Normally when a user visits a secure website, such as Bank of America, PayPal or Ebay, the browser examines the website’s certificate to verify its authenticity. However, IOActive researcher Dan Kaminsky and independent researcher Moxie Marlinspike, working separately, presented nearly identical findings in separate talks at the Black Hat security conference on Wednesday. Each showed how an attacker can legitimately obtain a certificate with a special character in the domain name that would fool nearly all popular browsers into believing an attacker is whichever site he wants to be. The problem occurs in the way that browsers implement Secure Socket Layer communications. “This is a vulnerability that would affect every SSL implementation,” Marlinspike told Threat Level, “because almost everybody who has ever tried to implement SSL has made the same mistake.”